Karl Marx was forced to migrate to the Belgian capital in 1845 after being expelled from both Germany and France because of the political ideology he was spreading. From Belgium, he wrote together with Friedrich Engels, his most famous book, the Communist Manifesto.
The author of Les Miserables, Victor Hugo also made Belgium his home. Hugo was not expelled from France, but as a defender of democracy, social justice and the abolition of the death penalty, he was a very serious opponent of Napoleon III. That's why he escaped from France and came to Brussels in 1851, where he stayed seven months at Grand Place. He then returned to Brussels in 1861 to write Les Miserables.
Alexandre Dumas, the author of major works like The Count of Monte Cristo, was another famous author who lived in Brussels. Dumas moved to Brussels in 1851, the same year as his friend, Victor Hugo. Although he pretended he was forced to migrate for political reasons, the truth is he was facing prison in France because of debts, had no other option. Dumas lived in Boulevard de Waterloo for two years before reaching an agreement with his lenders and returning to Paris in 1853.
Probably the most influential man of the 20th century: Albert Einstein. Einstein, who was the mind behind major scientific discoveries, lived in Belgium on and off between 1902 and 1933. His last trip to Belgium was of the most significance. In 1933, Adolph Hitler was elected German Chancellor. While the Jews suffered from the first discriminatory measures, Albert Einstein, who was living in California, decided not to come back to Germany. He headed to Belgium, and stayed in Le Coq for six months with his wife, before going back to the USA indefinitely.